In the second quarter of 2019, wages for U.S. workers were 4.0% higher than at the same point in 2018, with the average wage level increasing $1.09 over the year to reach $28.54 an hour, according to the findings of a quarterly analysis of workforce trends performed by the ADP Research Institute.

The results, released on July 24, indicated that this year-on-year wage growth as of June 2019 was driven by large wage gains for workers in the manufacturing (4.4% wage growth, $29.83 hourly wage) and construction (4.4% wage growth, $28.65 hourly wage) industries. The survey also revealed that the service sector industries that contributed most to annual wage growth were information (4.2% wage growth, $41.56 hourly wage), trade (4.3% wage growth, $25.27 hourly wage), professional and business services (4.1% wage growth, $36.45 hourly wage), and leisure and hospitality services (4.2% wage growth, $17.42 hourly wage).

In addition, the analysis looked at the wage gains of job switchers as of June 2019. The findings indicated that job switchers in the information industry made the largest gains (9.7% wage growth, $41.08 hourly wage), and that job switchers in professional and business services and construction also experienced strong wage growth of 8.3% and 8.7%, respectively. However, the results showed that job holders in trade, the largest sector, saw more wage growth than workers who switched into the sector (5.2% versus 3.8%), but lagged in terms of annual employment growth (0.6%).

Broken down by region, the analysis found that the region with the highest average hourly wage rate as of June 2019 was the Northeast ($31.99), followed by the West ($30.69). Yet the findings also indicated that the highest level of annual wage growth was in the Midwest (4.5%), even though this region had the lowest hourly wage rate ($26.57) and the lowest employment growth rate (1.0%). The results further showed that job switchers in the West had the strongest average wage growth (7.3%), while workers in the South and the Northeast had the lowest wage growth (3.6%). Broken down by firm size, the analysis revealed that workers at large firms had the highest wage growth (5.1%) and employment growth (3.1%) rates.

Researchers observed that the tight labor market is leading companies to increase compensation, with businesses in most sectors having to raise their wages to retain their skilled workers. They also noted that female job holders have been experiencing larger wage gains than their male counterparts: since January 2019, female job holders registered average wage gains of 5%, while male job holders had average wage gains of 4.6%.